Best ISP Practices: While connecting to an Internet Exchange

Internet Exchange is a physical infrastructure through which Content Aggregators and ISP’s exchange internet traffic. More advancements in IX technology have been seen over the last 10 years.

Normally, the success of an IXP should be measured by its ability to sustainably contribute to the development of the Internet ecosystem within its community. Growth in the number of members connecting to IX encourages to exchange the internet traffic and keep it local.

Members connect to Internet exchanges to peer directly with other ISP & content networks which results in lower reliance on Internet transit, with improved reliability & efficiency. As per Peering DB, there are now more than 600+ public internet exchange points. The main features of IX are to provide route-server peering.

The peering policy of an IXP is normally categorized as Bilateral & Multilateral (Route Server) Peering.

  • The Bilateral Peering policy allows each network operator to choose which other network operators it wants to exchange traffic with. Peering connections must be manually established through coordinated technical action taken by both parties in the peering relationship.
  • Multilateral/Route Server Peering policy allows all the operators connected to the IXP to automatically exchange traffic with each other by making a single connection to a central service called a Route Server. This makes it easy for network operators to establish and manage large numbers of peering relationships at the exchange.

While configuring these peering at IX, many issues have been reported with respect to misconfiguration of routers by new members. Some of the issues reported include unwanted broadcasts, MAC Flooding, ICMP redirects, misconfiguration of Rules & Filters.

ISP’s should be aware of the best practices while connecting to Internet Exchanges.

Download this documents presented at JANOG on “IX Configuration Best practices

DE-CIX India provides Bilateral Peering & Route Server Peering through its world-class infrastructure backed by DE-CIX. This allows 220+ Networks to interconnect with each other.


Who Provides Internet Service to Internet Service Providers – ISPs

Who Provides Internet Service to Internet Service Providers – ISPs

You need to understand what an Internet Service Provider is before understanding who offers an internet service to ISPs or internet service providers.

Definition of Internet service provider:

An ISP (Internet service provider) is an organization that offers services for using and accessing the Internet. The structure of internet service providers can take many different forms, including commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or other types of privately owned businesses.

An ISP community is the only industry which helps us in utilizing the benefits of internet and the great opportunities it holds for us. It only requires a modem and router for getting started.

The services provided by the ISP can include,

  1. Internet transit
  2. Internet access
  3. Domain name registration
  4. Collocation
  5. Usenet service

Now the question is who provides the internet to the ISPs?

ISPs provides data connection to their subscribers by virtue of which they can connect smartphones and other gadgets by using Wi-Fi routers available for providing internet. Also, they establish a high bandwidth connection(s) to either an internet exchange, or other ISPs, or as a combination of both. ISPs can also connect directly to (content) service providers or even host their servers directly inside one of their facilities (common with Google, Facebook, Netflix, etc.)

Let’s discuss some common terms used.


Peering is a method that allows two networks to connect and exchange traffic directly without having to pay a third party to carry traffic across the Internet.

In order to acquire the most traffic, two different types of tier networks are typically used, along with peering and bridging. The majority of large businesses choose to set up their own peering connections.

This approach is used by reputable internet service providers. They offered the subscribers access to their own network at the time of ISP peering. The entire processing is free, and neither ISP is paid by the other.

Peering at Internet Exchange Point (IXP

There are two types of Peering, one is public peering and another is private peering.

Peering at Internet Exchange Point (IXP) –

What is Internet Exchange Point (IXP)

Internet Exchange Point is a position where many ISPs interconnect their network together. Probably several peering sessions can be established across a single IXP peering.


Small data providers prefer for IP-transit to operate.

This is typically utilized in situations where the ISP is unable to connect to the outside world.

As a result, IP-transit reaches people that ISPs cannot. In general, it involves transporting internet traffic that exists between continents.

Thus, it can be connected to different types of ISP that is a paid service. The payment of the ISP depends on the amount of traffic attracted by the IP-Transit.

Network Tiers available in the market

       1. Tier 1

It is the huge network intended for offering the internet to ISPs. Therefore, it is a kind of transit free network that is required for peering with every other tier 1.

      2. Tier 2

This kind is required for peering with different type of networks, but still goes for payment settlement in order to reach some segment of the internet.

      3. Tier 3

Tier 3 is a type of network, which purchases the transit from different types of networks in order to reach the internet.

These tiers are available depending on the cost and quality. All the three kinds of tiers are known as the high performance networks.

The major goal of employing these levels is to direct customers toward the preferred providers. The easiest strategy to reduce costs while maintaining the top tier is in this way. These layers are important because they protect customer choice.

Consequently, the networks are perfect for allowing the users to provide the widest types of internet service provider.